... three pages from the book "Atomic Attack: How to Survive". It is important to keep in mind the military and historical context. 1950 is only five years after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and only one year since the Soviets have tested their first atomic bomb. At this point Russian nuclear weapons are in the 20 kiloton range ( the same size as the Hiroshima "Fat-Man" bomb). Much of the Civil Defense instructions concentrate on avoiding the type of injuries that occurred in Japan. Atomic weapons are not magical and most of the casualties were of the same types suffered in conventional bombing.
The Cold War is still in it's very early phases and much of the technology and strategy we take for granted were not in place yet. The irony is that many feared a surprise attack by Russia more during this period; than later when bombs and stockpiles were much larger and "Mutual Assured Destruction" wad a well known factor of deterrence. Stalin ruled the Soviet juggernaut and a common theory was that Russia would strike as soon as they were capable!